When analyzing the acceleration waveforms, the az acceleration can be seen, which is the most important from the point of view of flight phase recognition, also reaches a high value during the approach. This is probably the result of the impact of vibrations generated by the aircraft engine, the considerable power of which causes such a reaction of the entire aircraft. On the other hand, the highest values of az acceleration were recorded for the touchdown and rollout phases, the difference being not very large compared to the values measured during the approach phase. This emphasizes the need to use a different, additional sensor, thanks to which incorrect recognition of flight phases will be avoided. This additional sensor is the magnetometer.
In Figure 8, the data waveforms recorded by the magnetometer sensors are shown. The most important were the changes in the magnetic field with respect to the vertical (Z) and horizontal (X) axes, as they informed about changes in the position of the aircraft in the vertical plane, along the direction of flight (the inclination of the aircraft resulting from changes in the angle of attack during individual landing phases). Therefore, during the approach phase, the tilt of the plane manifests itself in quite significant values of the magnetic field compared to the flare phase when the airplane takes a horizontal position. The changes in the magnetic field in relation to the transverse axis (Y) are small and could result from the reaction to crosswinds or other disturbing pulses occurring during the flight.
A close observation of an aircraft reveals a number of visible features from a facial appearance. The observable features include wings, the propeller engine and the tail. A more detailed observation beyond the visible details exposes hidden and very intriguing features. All these features, both visible and invisible, form the whole aircraft structure and enable it to perform the designers intended functions.
Aircraft conceptual design is an art as well as a science, put in a theoretical perspective. It is the paper-based or computer-designed logical engineering procedure of creating a flying machine to satisfy particular user specifications and manufacturers requirement. It is also essential as a tool for expressing pioneer innovation, with the inclusion of newly discovered technological ideas. (Anderson 2005, p. 37).
Just to mention an example of a conceptual design is the 1947 Bell X-1commercial transports, the pioneer rocket driven aircraft to surpass the speed of sound in climbing flight. The process is an essential tool for a manufacturer to realize successful airplane designs, which can compete with the dynamic progression in aeronautical Engineering.
The conceptual design is the graphical representation of structures of various fundamental features in the area of aeronautical engineering. These areas include propulsion, taking off and landing control, aerodynamics and weight control. The design takes care of the size, weight, shape and the speed of an aircraft.
In order to design a better performing aircraft, it is vital to balance all the aspects without a compromise (Anderson 2005, p.21). While observing the balance, the designer ought to be able to optimize at least one of the design factors depending on the purpose of the aircraft, the desired cruise speed, flight range, take-off distance, standard cruise altitude, The Federal Aviation Association (FAA) Regulations.
It should have a capacity of between 800 Pax to 1200 Pax. This is a modern commercial transport aircraft; therefore, its design has to comply with the international transport requirements to serve the future market demands. (Anderson 2005, p.20). Optimizing all elements of aircraft performance is not a guarantee, so one element has to be selected as the most vital. In this case, the mission of the aircraft plays the key role in guiding the entire design process.
Federal Aviation Association has set standard regulations, to which every aircraft design must comply. The regulations are periodically reviewed to integrate supplementary requirements that emerge because of live experiences with existing aircrafts.
The regulations govern the Air Worthiness conditions of aircrafts, Flight Rules and General Operations Standards, aircraft capacity and the highest takeoff weight. The design of Superjumbo A380 has taken in to account all the design phase regulations, and given provision for the operation regulations to be observed at test phase and the operation phase.
The process of in designing the Superjumbo A380 aircraft from the preliminary conceptual stage to the flight test stage is made up of progressive phases. The first phase is the identification of the desired potential for a new aircraft, apparent market demand and the state of technology (Raymer, 2006).
This phase involves research into the issues affecting the global aviation industry. The objective of the new design is to produce competitive performance to outshine the existing competitors (Sobester, Keane, Scanlan, and Bresslof 2005, p. 7). The second phase is to formulate a conceptual design to develop the principle graphical representation of features and configuration for a proposed new aircraft.
It involves the approximations of the size dimensions, weights and the selection of aerodynamic properties suitable for the satisfaction of the requirements as described in the proposal of the aircraft design. The design will determine the best provision for payload, wing and engine structure.
This conceptual design locates the standard weight categories in order to meet constant requirements. It will determine the modalities for achieving a preferred level of manoeuvrability. The conceptual design is dependent on the mission requirements, as set in the drafted design proposal.
Our proposal is to design a supersonic long-range commercial transportation business aircraft with a cruise Mach number of 0.82 and a cruise altitude of 11500 Feet. Its range will be 9200 Nautical Miles and a full payload consisting of passengers and luggage of total maximum weight amounting to 8400 kilograms.
The internal layout will be designed to be able to accommodate from 100 to120 passengers. Including the cabin crew, the weight goes up but to a negligible margin, which it can comfortably tolerate. The aircraft will have a maximum takeoff weight is estimated 40000 kg (Roskam1990, p34). It will have wings with split type flaps capable of demonstrating high efficiency in aerodynamics.
The principal design drivers are the high L/D ratio, lightweight and low fuel utilization. The minor design factors are average take-off distance and landing distance, similar to high-speed supersonic Boeings. During the preliminary design stage, a comprehensive analysis will be done on the aerodynamic loads as well as the weights of the component. The comprehensive design will involve generation of a well-designed structure of the Superjumbo A380aircraft. This will consider every detail necessary for building the aircraft.
In this article, we cover an overview of the steps of the conceptual aircraft design of an aircraft. It is further simplified in to numerous items in their order of protocol. These items include Literature review, Initial data sampling, Approximation of aircraft weight, estimation of maximum take-off weight, determination of the weight of an empty aircraft and Fuel tank Capacity.
The formulation of these elements is exemplified in the subsequent surveys consisting of high-speed long-range supersonic commercial transport aircraft. In order to achieve the mission requirements of the design, we use a good example requiring an element of compromise, since these missions are not easily achievable.
The objective of this conceptual design is to ensure the Superjumbo A380 is built by the year 2025, therefore the time factor must be observed in the implementation of design processes. Below is the conceptual image of the various vital components.
Data collection was done from the existing market analysis, the existing aircraft models and from the already completed proposal. Using the L/D ratio projections and simplified thrust data from previous testing, the advanced groundwork design was simulated in the initial mission model. Data was collected for the estimated performance of the existing models, and principal payload test. The payload was also used to estimate the entire System weight, fuel usage and wing geometry and tail surface area using historical data.
Updated method takes into account enhanced statistical equations for optimized factors such as better L/D approximations, ability to provide details of drops in payload and the ability to be applied in the sizing of fixed-engine. When the empty weight of an aircraft (Wempty) is estimated by the use of enhanced statistical equation, it results into more suitable statistical proportion to data. These data includes main design variables such as AR, maximum speed, T/W and W/S, and are related in the following model:
Where a is the angle of attack, Sstrake is the surface area of the strake that is exposed, Fuselage for most of the aircraft models is sized by the real world situations and aircraft missions. Another ratio that is equally vital for thermodynamics is the Fineness ratio. This refers to the ratio of length to diameter of the fuselage. The optimal ratio for this by calculation is 14 for supersonic designs. The following table contains data useful as design guidelines.
Parasite drag predictions depends entirely on drag data extracted from aircraft designs. A good estimate of supersonic parasite drag may be made using the surface-friction drag coefficient, Cfe, defined in the following model:
At this stage, we select the airfoil shape for the Super Jumbo jet aircraft wing using the references obtained from the literature survey and through websites. At the end of the six-series section, airfoil design more specialized for particular applications. Airfoils had good lift capability and low drag sections. The wing design started with the determination of much airfoil sections. The entire geometry is customized depending on its Three-dimensional outlook. 2b1af7f3a8