In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity. This underlying entity can be an asset, index, or interest rate, and is often simply called the "underlying". Derivatives can be used for a number of purposes, including insuring against price movements (hedging), increasing exposure to price movements for speculation, or getting access to otherwise hard-to-trade assets or markets.
In finance, a 'futures contract' (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized contract between two parties to buy or sell a specified asset of standardized quantity and quality for a price agreed upon today (the futures price) with delivery and payment occurring at a specified future date, the delivery date, making it a derivative product (i.e. a financial product that is derived from an underlying asset). The contracts are negotiated at a futures exchange, which acts as an intermediary between buyer and seller. The party agreeing to buy the underlying asset in the future, the "buyer" of the contract, is said to be "long", and the party agreeing to sell the asset in the future, the "seller" of the contract, is said to be "short".
OTC represents the biggest challenge in using models to price derivatives. Since these contracts are not publicly traded, no market price is available to validate the theoretical valuation. Most of the model's results are input-dependent (meaning the final price depends heavily on how we derive the pricing inputs).Therefore, it is common that OTC derivatives are priced by Independent Agents that both counterparties involved in the deal designate upfront (when signing the contract).
The term Romance derives from the Vulgar Latin adverb romanice, "in Roman", derived from romanicus: for instance, in the expression romanice loqui, "to speak in Roman" (that is, the Latin vernacular), contrasted with latine loqui, "to speak in Latin" (Medieval Latin, the conservative version of the language used in writing and formal contexts or as a lingua franca), and with barbarice loqui, "to speak in Barbarian" (the non-Latin languages of the peoples living outside the Roman Empire). From this adverb the noun romance originated, which applied initially to anything written romanice, or "in the Roman vernacular".
The greatest variety of vowel systems outside of southern Italy is found in Corsica, where the Italo-Western type is represented in most of the north and center and the Sardinian type in the south, as well as a system resembling the Sicilian vowel system (and even more closely the Carovignese system) in the Cap Corse region; finally, in between the Italo-Western and Sardinian system is found, in the Taravo region, a unique vowel system that cannot be derived from any other system, which has reflexes like Sardinian for the most part, but the short high vowels of Latin are uniquely reflected as mid-low vowels.
Final -m was dropped in Vulgar Latin. Even in Classical Latin, final -am, -em, -um (inflectional suffixes of the accusative case) were often elided in poetic meter, suggesting the m was weakly pronounced, probably marking the nasalisation of the vowel before it. This nasal vowel lost its nasalization in the Romance languages except in monosyllables, where it became /n/ e.g. Spanish quien < quem "whom", French rien "anything" < rem "thing"; note especially French and Catalan mon < meum "my (m.sg.)" which are derived from monosyllabic /meu̯m/ > */meu̯n/, /mun/, whereas Spanish disyllabic mío and Portuguese and Catalan monosyllabic meu are derived from disyllabic /ˈme.um/ > */ˈmeo/.
French phonemicized a third vowel length system around AD 1300 as a result of the sound change /VsC/ > /VhC/ > /VːC/ (where V is any vowel and C any consonant). This vowel length began to be lost in Early Modern French, but the long vowels are still usually marked with a circumflex (and continue to be distinguished regionally, chiefly in Belgium). A fourth vowel length system, still non-phonemic, has now arisen: All nasal vowels as well as the oral vowels /ɑ o ø/ (which mostly derive from former long vowels) are pronounced long in all stressed closed syllables, and all vowels are pronounced long in syllables closed by the voiced fricatives /v z ʒ ʁ vʁ/. This system in turn has been phonemicized in some varieties (e.g. Haitian Creole), as a result of the loss of final /ʁ/.
Most languages are written with a mixture of two distinct but phonetically identical variants or "cases" of the alphabet: majuscule ("uppercase" or "capital letters"), derived from Roman stone-carved letter shapes, and minuscule ("lowercase"), derived from Carolingian writing and Medieval quill pen handwriting which were later adapted by printers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
There is both direct and indirect regulation of tryptophan and serotonin in the gut by the resident microbiota. Indirect regulation of tryptophan availability and serotonin formation by the gut microbiota is primarily via the kynurenine pathway. As noted, the synthesis of kynurenine accounts for approximately 90% of tryptophan metabolism . Recent evidence for direct regulation comes from germ-free animals that are laboratory-raised and are gut microbiota-deficient. These animals show increased levels of circulating tryptophan  and decreased serotonin . When these animals have tryptophan metabolising bacteria introduced to their gut, circulating levels of tryptophan fall, with this alteration accompanying a sex-specific effect on hippocampal serotonin concentrations in male germ-free animals . Within the brain, an increase in hippocampal serotonin levels and turnover was observed, along with a decrease in anxiety-like behaviour, demonstrating the influence of gut microbiota on both behavioural correlates and brain neurochemistry . Interestingly, these animals also displayed a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor messenger RNA levels and reduced expression of the synaptic signalling genes PSD-95 and synaptophysin in regions of the brain responsible for motor control and anxiety such as the striatum .
The estimated blood volume calculator approximates intravascular blood with consideration for patient weight and demographic information. In particular blood volume per kilogram is variable based on sex and age, with higher average blood per kg in newborn children as compared to adults. These values were derived through radioisotope labelling of circulating blood by Nadler et al. in 1962. This study derived a predictive equation based on patient sex, surface area, and body mass, which has since been simplified to a per kilogram basis based on patient age and sex.
Many other equations have since been derived to estimate patient blood volume building off of Nadler's foundational work. The simplified formula used in this calculator is found commonly in anesthesia and surgical textbooks, including Clinical Anesthesia cited here.
26. A property is considered a treaty-protected property of the vendor, if all of the income or gain derived from the disposition of that property is exempt from tax under Part I of the Act, due to a provision in a tax treaty that Canada has with the country of residence of the vendor.
Michaelis constants have been determined for many commonly used enzymes, and are typically in the lower millimolar range (Table 6.5). It should be noted that enzymes which catalyse the same reaction, but which are derived from different organisms, can have widely differing Km values. Furthermore, an enzyme with multiple substrates can have quite different Km values for each substrate.
The temperature at which denaturation becomes important varies from one enzyme to another. Normally it is negligible below 30°C, and starts to become appreciable above 40°C. Typically, enzymes derived from microbial sources show much higher thermal stability than do those from mammalian sources, and enzymes derived from extremely thermophilic microorganisms, such as thermolysin (a protease from Bacillus thermoproteolyticus) and Taq polymerase (a DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus), might be completely thermostable at 70°C and still retain substantial levels of activity even at 100°C. 2b1af7f3a8