A machine tool that uses a rotary table with four or more rollers for holding a workpiece while it is being cut or machined. Routers provide accurate rotational positioning of a flat-faced tool (such as a cutter) with respect to a workpiece. This type of machine tool can also do automatic movement of the table past the tool. Routers are versatile and can be used for a variety of operations such as turning, milling, drilling, and threading.
A method of making and maintaining the workpiece reference surface to a very high degree of accuracy and repeatability. For machine tool and milling applications, the reference surface is often machined onto the piece to be ground. For progressive die applications, the reference surface is incorporated into the die and can be cut to a specified tolerance. For lathe applications, the reference surface is usually the leadscrew that holds the workpiece.
A tool that is used for removing small amounts of material from a workpiece (for example, material removed during turning). The tool, sometimes called a milling cutter, is held in a fixture, and the fixture is attached to the tool carriage of a machine tool. The tool is then moved across the workpiece, causing small amounts of material to be removed.
An assembly of parts that hold the workpiece, provide a reference surface, and hold the tool. It is typically used to process workpieces that are held in fixture and are moved in a controlled, repeatable manner. Lathes are usually equipped with a tailstock, which is used to move the workpiece and allow the tool to be positioned on the surface to be cut or ground. The tailstock may also be used to hold the workpiece while the tool is moving. The other common tool types used on lathes are a slow tool-changer, which holds the part being cut or ground, and a tool rest, which holds the tool and positions the tool in a repeatable manner.
The workholding fixture may be a single component or include movable components. The typical movable component is called a clamp which is available as a fixed or adjustable mounted device. Clamps hold workpieces in place while allowing a tool to move into position. Certain clamps are designed to be moved into position before the workpiece is placed in the machining area. Clamps can be any of the following:
Most machines use a fixture, including a material removal tool such as a drill, milling tool, or saw, and a supporting tool, to perform a specific operation on a workpiece. The tool and fixture may be used to process material in a variety of ways, including drilling holes, sawing or cutting material, and shaping material. Each tool and fixture combination has its own method of holding the workpiece to allow for material removal with the tool. Some tools accept the workpiece directly, some require a fixture, while others can be used with all types of fixtures. The type of fixture is chosen based on the type of material being removed and the machining operation to be performed. Fixtures can hold a workpiece securely or loosely. 827ec27edc