The term "Saturday night special" came into wider use with the passing of the Gun Control Act of 1968 because the act banned the importation and manufacture of many inexpensive firearms, including a large number of revolvers made by Röhm Gesellschaft. With importation banned, Röhm opened a factory in Miami, Florida, and a number of companies in the United States began production of inexpensive handguns, including Raven Arms, Jennings Firearms, Phoenix Arms, Lorcin Engineering Company, Davis Industries, and Sundance Industries, which collectively came to be known as the "Ring of Fire companies".
While Saturday night specials are commonly perceived as inexpensive, and therefore disposable after committing a crime, criminal behavior does not always conform to this expectation. A 1985 study of 1,800 incarcerated felons showed that criminals at the time preferred revolvers and other non-semi-automatic firearms over semi-automatic firearms. A change in preferences towards semi-automatic pistols occurred in the early 1990s, coinciding with the arrival of crack cocaine and rise of violent youth gangs.
Nonetheless, three of the top ten types of guns involved in crime (as represented by police trace requests) in the US are widely considered to be Saturday night specials; as reported by the ATF in 1993, these included the Raven Arms .25 caliber, Davis P-380 .380 caliber, and Lorcin L 380 .380 caliber. However, the same study showed the most common firearm used in homicides was a large caliber revolver, and no revolvers of any kind appear on the top ten list of traced firearms.
In 2003, the NAACP filed suit against 45 gun manufacturers for creating what it called a "public nuisance" through the "negligent marketing" of handguns, which included models commonly described as Saturday night specials. The suit alleged that handgun manufacturers and distributors were guilty of marketing guns in a way that encouraged violence in black and Hispanic neighborhoods. The suit was dismissed by US District Judge Jack B. Weinstein, who ruled that members of the NAACP were not "uniquely harmed" by illegal use of firearms and therefore had no standing to sue.
Proponents of gun ownership argue the elimination of inexpensive firearms limits constitutionally protected gun rights for those of lesser means. Roy Innis, former President of Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and a member of the National Rifle Association's governing board, said "to make inexpensive guns impossible to get is to say that you're putting a money test on getting a gun. It's racism in its worst form." CORE filed as an amicus curiae in a 1985 suit challenging Maryland's Saturday night special/low-caliber handgun ban.
Raven Arms was a firearms manufacturer established in 1970 by firearms designer George Jennings. The Gun Control Act of 1968 prohibiting the importation of inexpensive handguns prompted Jennings to design the MP-25, a .25-caliber semi-automatic pistol, and enter the firearms business. Raven has been referred to as the original "Ring of Fire" company, a term describing companies known for producing inexpensive Saturday night special handguns.
Intravenous benzodiazepines such as diazepam, lorazepam,65 clonazepam and midazolam66 are used particularly in Europe for acute neonatal seizures. They may be used as the first anti-seizure AED. However, in a recent randomised trial of second-line anticonvulsant treatments for neonates,67 11 out of 22 subjects responded to phenobarbitone at a dose of 40 mg/kg as first-line treatment. Three of five neonates treated with lignocaine responded. However, of 6 neonates treated with benzodiazepines as second-line treatment, none responded and their neurodevelopmental outcome was poor.67
Convulsions usually remit spontaneously without medication. Prolonged seizures may be shortened or terminated by intravenous administration of benzodiazepines, phenobarbitone or phenytoin. If medications are used they are discontinued soon after the seizures subside.
The kid then shot my teammate again, hitting his cheek bone below his eye, at which time he realized he had been shot and covered his face with his arms. The kid fired again and struck him in the elbow. The bullets never penetrated his skull or sternum but did cause some fractures from what I remember.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of baroreceptor unloading on the sensitivity of the cardiovagal and sympathetic arms of the baroreflex during upright posture. Beat-by-beat R-R interval, arterial blood pressure and cardiac output (Doppler ultrasound), as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded during periods in supine (Supine) and 60 deg head-up tilt (HUT) positions (n = 8 volunteers). Cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was measured by the spontaneous sequence analysis method using systolic blood pressure and R-R interval, while sympathetic BRS was determined using the slope of the linear relationship between decreasing segments of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and corresponding increases in MSNA. On changing to HUT, mean R-R interval and cardiac output decreased, while mean measures of MSNA, DBP and total peripheral resistance increased (P < 0.05). Cardiovagal BRS decreased from Supine to 60 deg HUT (19 ± 2 ms mmHg-1 versus 7.6 ± 1.2 ms mmHg-1; P < 0.01). In contrast, sympathetic BRS increased from -6.1 ± 1.4 a.u. mmHg-1 in Supine to -14 ± 2 a.u. mmHg-1 in HUT (P < 0.01). Thus, HUT produced differential effects on cardiac versus sympathetic BRS. The data suggest that dynamic baroreflex-mediated cardiovascular control is dominated by sympathetic control during baroreceptor unloading. Experimental Physiology (2003) 88.6, 769-774. 2b1af7f3a8