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India is known as the world leader in castor seed and oil production and leads the international castor oil trade. Castor oil production in this country usually fluctuates between 250,000 and 350,000 tons per year. Approximately 86% of castor seed production in India is concentrated in Gujarat, followed by Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. Specifically, the regions of Mehsana, Banaskantha, and Saurashtra/Kutch in Gujarat and the districts of Nalgonda and Mahboobnagar of Andhra Pradesh are the major areas of castor oil production in India.7 The economic success of castor crops in Gujarat in the 1980s and thereafter can be attributed to a combination of a good breeding program, a good extension model, coupled with access to well-developed national and international markets.8
After the hull is removed from the seed, the seeds are then cleaned to remove any foreign materials such as sticks, stems, leaves, sand, or dirt.75 These materials can usually be removed using a series of revolving screens or reels. Magnets used above the conveyer belts can remove iron. The seeds can then be heated to harden the interior of the seeds for extraction. In this process, the seeds are warmed in a steam-jacketed press to remove moisture, and this hardening process will aid in extraction. The cooked seeds are then dried before the extraction process begins. A continuous screw or hydraulic press is used to crush the castor oil seeds to facilitate removal of the oil (Fig. 5). The first part of this extraction phase is called prepressing. Prepressing usually involves using a screw press called an oil expeller. The oil expeller is a high-pressure continuous screw press to extract the oil.
Although this process can be done at a low temperature, mechanical pressing leads to only about 45% recovery of oil from the castor beans.16 Higher temperatures can increase the efficiency of the extraction. Yields of up to 80% of the available oil can be obtained by using high-temperature hydraulic pressing in the extraction process.74 The extraction temperature can be controlled by circulating cold water through a pressing machine responsible for cold pressing of the seeds. Cold-pressed castor oil has lower acid and iodine content and is lighter in color than solvent-extracted castor oil.75
With the advent of biotechnological innovations, genetic engineering has the potential of improving both the quality and quantity of castor oil. Genetic engineering can be categorized into two parts: one approach is to increase certain fatty acids, while the second approach is to engineer biosynthetic pathways of industrially high-valued oils.94 For the latter, biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for fatty acid production can be mined for such purpose. In one particular study by Lu et al,95Arabidopsis thaliana expressing castor fatty acid hydroxylase 12 (FAH12) was used to mine genes that can improve the hydoxy fatty acid accumulation among developed transgenic seeds. The aforementioned study was able to identify certain proteins that can improve the hydroxy fatty acid content of castor seeds. These proteins include oleosins (a small protein involved in the formation of lipid bodies) and phosphatidylethanolamine (a protein involved in fatty acid modification and is channeled to triacylglycerol).96 Through understanding the genetics behind oil production, better yield can be achieved.
As a source of biodiesel, recent studies showed that the biodiesel synthesis from castor oil is limited by a number of factors that include having the proper reaction temperature, oil-to-methanol molar ratio, and the quantity of catalyst. A study using response surface methodology as a model has been used to optimize the reaction factor for biodiesel synthesis from castor oil.100 In another similar study, parameters affecting castor oil transesterification reaction were investigated. Using Taguchi method consisting of four parameters (reaction temperature, mixing intensity, alcohol/oil ratio, and catalyst concentration), the best experimental conditions were determined. It was determined that the reaction temperature and mixing intensity can be optimized. Using the optimum results, the authors proposed a kinetic model that resulted in establishing an equation for the beginning rate of transesterification reaction.101 Besides the Taguchi method, a full factorial design of experiment is also another approach that was investigated to optimize biodiesel production from castor oil. Second-order polynomial model was obtained to predict biodiesel yield as a function of these variables. The experimental results for the process garnered an average yield of biodiesel of more than 90%.102 The use of models and simulations can, indeed, greatly facilitate the efficiency of biodiesel production from castor oil. To add further, a simple model using a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism has been proposed, which summarizes an efficient method of noncatalytic transesterification of castor oil in supercritical methanol and ethanol.103 It is an enzymatic reaction model that involves two substrates and two products (referred to as bi-bi system). An enzyme reacts first with one substrate to form a product and a modified enzyme. The modified enzyme would then react with a second substrate to form a final product and would regenerate the original enzyme. In this model, an enzyme is perceived as a ping-pong ball that bounces from one state to another.
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Bird-mediated seed dispersal is crucial for the regeneration and viability of ecosystems, often resulting in complex mutualistic species networks. Yet, how this mutualism drives the evolution of seed dispersing birds is still poorly understood. In the present study we combine whole genome re-sequencing analyses and morphometric data to assess the evolutionary processes that shaped the diversification of the Eurasian nutcracker (Nucifraga), a seed disperser known for its mutualism with pines (Pinus). Our results show that the divergence and phylogeographic patterns of nutcrackers resemble those of other non-mutualistic passerine birds and suggest that their early diversification was shaped by similar biogeographic and climatic processes. The limited variation in foraging traits indicates that local adaptation to pines likely played a minor role. Our study shows that close mutualistic relationships between bird and plant species might not necessarily act as a primary driver of evolution and diversification in resource-specialized birds.
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You can have a successful grow with just one viable seed. Our suppliers have so much confidence in their product that they give you a germination guarantee close to 100%. If you decide to grow feminized seeds, each seed will translate into one plant yielding smokable buds. if you choose regular seeds instead, there will be a 50% chance of it turning to be male, and hence unusable for most growers.
If you live in a region with a warm and sunny climate, like California, New England, or the Mediterranean, you can successfully grow practically all Indicas and most hybrids. Only the most exotic pure Sativas with a harvest time in November are not recommended. With less favorable climate conditions, your choice of an outdoor strain gets more and more limited.
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Buying cannabis seeds at Herbies Head Shop is totally safe. We use a secure web protocol to ensure the safety of your personal and banking information. All purchases are shipped in plain, unmarked envelopes, and if you choose the stealth delivery option, the seeds will be hidden among random items. 2b1af7f3a8