The Surface Water Modeling System (SMS) is a comprehensive environment for one- and two-dimensional models dealing with surface water applications. Hydrodynamic models include CMS-Flow, ADH, FESWMS, ADCIRC, and TUFLOW. The hydrodynamic models cover a range of applications including river flow analysis, rural and urban flooding, estuary and inlet modeling, and modeling of large coastal domains. Additional functionalities include advection/diffusion and sediment transport (FESWMS). Wave models in SMS include CMS-Wave, STWAVE, BOUSS2D, and CGWAVE and include both spectral and wave transformation models. The Particle Tracking Model (PTM) tracks particles added to the water column to help evaluate sediment transport and environmental impacts. In addition, the generic model interface allows users to use the powerful mesh building tools with numeric engines that do not have custom interfaces. SMS can import data from a variety of files including text, CAD, and GIS files. SMS contains many visualizations options including contours (filled or linear), flow/velocity vectors, creation of animations, and exporting to Google Earth or GIS.
The Surface Water Modeling System (SMS) is a comprehensive environment for one-, two, and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling. A pre- and post-processor for surface water modeling and design, SMS includes 2D finite element, 2D finite difference, 3D finite element modeling tools. Supported models include RMA2, RMA4, ADCIRC, CGWAVE, STWAVE, BOUSS2D, CMS-Flow, CMS-Wave, and GENESIS models. A comprehensive interface has also been developed for facilitating the use of the FHWA commissioned analysis package FESWMS. The TUFLOW numerical model with powerful flood analysis, wave analysis, and hurricane analysis is now supported. SMS also includes a generic model interface, which can be used to support models which have not been officially incorporated into the system.
The numeric models supported in SMS compute a variety of information applicable to surface water modeling. Primary applications of the models include calculation of water surface elevations and flow velocities for shallow water flow problems, for both steady-state or dynamic conditions. Additional applications include the modeling of contaminant migration, salinity intrusion, sediment transport (scour and deposition), wave energy dispersion, wave properties (directions, magnitudes and amplitudes) and others.
SMS can be used to construct 2D and 3D finite element meshes and finite difference grids of rivers, estuaries, bays, or wetland areas. The tools include a sophisticated set of creation and editing tools to handle complex modeling situations with relative ease. Several methods of finite element mesh creation are available, allowing you to create any combination of rectangular and triangular elements needed to represent your model domain. Both cartesian and boundary-fitted grid creation tools are available to allow representation of a model domain for finite difference models. The powerful mesh/grid creation tools, coupled with GIS objects, are what makes SMS such an easy-to-use and accurate modeling system!
Land Subsidence From Ground-Water PumpingS. A. LeakeU.S. Geological SurveyCAUSE OF LAND SUBSIDENCE FROM GROUND-WATER PUMPINGLand subsidence is the lowering of the land-surface elevation fromchanges that take place underground. Common causes of land subsidencefrom human activity are pumping water, oil, and gas from undergroundreservoirs; dissolution of limestone aquifers (sinkholes); collapse ofunderground mines; drainage of organic soils; and initial wetting ofdry soils (hydrocompaction). Land subsidence occurs in nearly everystate of the United States (figure 1).Figure 1. Click on image to view full size.Overdrafting of aquifers is the major cause of subsidence in thesouthwestern United States, and as ground-water pumping increases,land subsidence also will increase. In many aquifers, ground water ispumped from pore spaces between grains of sand and gravel. If anaquifer has beds of clay or silt within or next to it (figure 2),the lowered water pressure in the sand and gravel causes slow drainageof water from the clay and silt beds. The reduced water pressure is aloss of support for the clay and silt beds. Because these beds arecompressible, they compact (become thinner), and the effects are seenas a lowering of the land surface. The lowering of land surfaceelevation from this process is permanent. For example, if loweredground-water levels caused land subsidence, recharging the aquiferuntil ground water returned to the original levels would not result inan appreciable recovery of the land-surface elevation.DAMAGE CAUSED BY LAND SUBSIDENCELand subsidence causes many problems including: (1) changes inelevation and slope of streams, canals, and drains; (2) damage tobridges, roads, railroads, storm drains, sanitary sewers, canals, andlevees; (3) damage to private and public buildings; and (4) failure ofwell casings from forces generated by compaction of fine-grainedmaterials in aquifer systems. In some coastal areas, subsidence hasresulted in tides moving into low-lying areas that were previouslyabove high-tide levels. An example of damage caused by land subsidencecan be seen in figure 3. The concrete base at the top of the well isabove ground level because the land surface has lowered and the rigidwell casing has not sunk. Figure 2. Click on Image to view full size.Figure 3. Click on Image for full size with explanation.In many areas of the arid Southwest, earth fissures are associatedwith land subsidence. Earth fissures can be more than 100 feet deepand several hundred feet in length. One extraordinary fissure incentral Arizona is 10 miles long. These features start out as narrowcracks, an inch or less in width. They intercept surface drainage andcan erode to widths of tens of feet at the surface. Examples of earthcracks are shown in figures 4, 5, 6, and 7. Earthfissures are caused by horizontal movement of sediments that occurswhen ground-water is pumped.Figure 4. Click for full size and explanation.Figure 5. Click for full size and explanation.Figure 6. Click for full size and explanation.Figure 7. Click for full size and explanation.AMOUNTS OF SUBSIDENCE IN SELECTED AREAS IN THE SOUTHWESTAfter large-scale development of ground-water resources began in theSouthwest after World War II, land subsidence has occurred in manyareas. The following table lists approximate maximum subsidenceamounts as of 1997 for selected locations in the Southwest:ArizonaNevadaCaliforniaTexasEloy15 feetLas Vegas6 feetLancaster6 feetEl Paso1 footWest of Phoenix18 feetNew MexicoSouthwest of Mendota29 feetHouston9 feetTucson
The water table is an underground boundary between the soil surface and the area where groundwater saturates spaces between sediments and cracks in rock. Water pressure and atmospheric pressure are equal at this boundary.
The soil surface above the water table is called the unsaturated zone, where both oxygen and water fill the spaces between sediments. The unsaturated zone is also called the zone of aeration due to the presence of oxygen in the soil. Underneath the water table is the saturated zone, where water fills all spaces between sediments. The saturated zone is bounded at the bottom by impenetrable rock.
The shape and height of the water table is influenced by the land surface that lies above it; it curves up under hills and drops under valleys. The groundwater found below the water table comes from precipitation that has seeped through surface soil. Springs are formed where the water table naturally meets the land surface, causing groundwater to flow from the surface and eventually into a stream, river, or lake.
During the summer months, the water table tends to fall, due in part to plants taking up water from the soil surface before it can reach the water table. The water table level is also influenced by human extraction of groundwater using wells; groundwater is pumped out for drinking water and to irrigate farmland. The depth of the water table can be measured in existing wells to determine the effects of season, climate, or human impact on groundwater. The water table can actually be mapped across regions using measurements taken from wells.
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OpenFlows FLOOD uses fully spatially-distributed numerical models to simulate all hydrological and hydraulic processes that occur in river basins, including rainfall, infiltration, surface runoff, channel flow, and groundwater flow. In urban areas, OpenFlows FLOOD can be connected to a model generated by OpenFlows SewerGEMS to simulate the surface and stormwater flow. Additionally, the model can be used to simulate flooding in coastal areas due to storm surges.
Prepare spatial data and use different modeling approaches to simulate surface runoff, the exchange of water between the river, the floodplain, and (sub)surface flow using fully integrated 1D-2D grid.
Sand1. (Read your specific model Owner's Manual to learn how much to use of either filler option.2. Lay the basketball system on the ground so it balances on the rim and the base plug is facing upwards.3. Have an adult hold the pole down so the system does not tip up during filling.4. Unscrew the base cap.5. Place a funnel in the base hole and fill pour in sand.6. Screw the base cap onto the fill hole.7. Using two adults, slowly stand the system up on a flat surface. 2b1af7f3a8